The Vanguard was founded in August 1944 by Peadar Cowan. It sought an Irish Socialist Republic, as part of a European federation or league of Socialist Republics.
Initial membership was drawn in part from expelled members of the Labour party, who at that time had dissolved the Dublin Central and Liam Mellows Cork branches of the party for their radical positions (the latter led to the formation of the Cork Socialist Party).
The Vanguard petered out in 1945, with Cowan later rejoining Labour and then Clann na Poblachta.
The archive currently has no documents from this organisation.
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